Determine kind of biological material and help with taxonomie by redprot®
Free protein - Rapid and intense one step staining
Cell staining - Characteristic distribution pattern inside cells
and time curve of colour development

The redprot®dye infiltrates the microorganisms and reacts with the proteins of the cytoplasma.

The kinetic of colour uptake is determined by the properties of the cell wall.
Water living organisms with thin and no specially enlarged outer wall are stained within seconds. This holds for yeast cells and bacteria, but also diploid cells from cell culture.

Different is the kinetic of redprot® dye uptake of airborne particles: Especially pollen are marked by the species typical solide structure of the outer walls – the exine and intine.
This gives reason to two different characteristics

  1. The relative size and shape of the cytoplasma is typical for a species.
  2. The thickness of a pollen, the number and size of pores determine as well the velocity as the amount of dye-uptake. For example a thin-walled grass pollen will be stained in short time and very intensively – in contrast a thick-walled pollen from a cypress will need long time of incubation to accumulate dye in the cytoplasma.

To some degree these difference holds even to the staining bacteria with different properties of the bacterial wall. Gram negative bacteria stain more slowly than Gram-positive organisms. But finally both types are stained by redprot®.
Bacteria become easily visible by staining with redprot®.
Thus one important criterium for classification of bacteria, the shape is visible in the bright field of a light microscope.

A second criterium is given by the kinetics of dye intake, corresponding to the properties of the wall structure:

- Gram positive Bacteria stain immedeately,
- Gram negative strains need five minutes for full staining
The yeast cells reveal a selected and rapid intake of redprot® visible as colour development:
unstained    10 sec    20 sec    30 sec    40 sec aeromedi
60 sec    80 sec    100 sec    150 sec    180 sec aeromedi
The yeast cells reveal a selected and rapid intake of redprot® visible as colour development:
19000    8500    4200    2100    1600    19000    yeast cell in total aeromedi
The staining of pollen with redprot® gives
irst of all a rapid and clear contrast of the outer shape, due to the accumulation of dye on the surface proteins This enables a discrimination from non biological particles.

(see the >>EM images of olive pollen).

In second order the cytoplasma of the pollen is stained. The dye enters via the pores, but also via the microchannels in the exine and intine.

The size and the shape of the cytoplasma is visualized, and additionally the thickness of the pollen wall becomes obvious.
The staining of this pollen mixture shows Cypressus spec with thick wall Olea europea intensively stained with arcadic outer rim and pollen of Graminea with thin clear wall and granulated cytoplasma.
Additionally redprot® stains pollen, that are poorly colourd by standard methods:

Nettle pollen are coloured by redprot® dye
Mould spores and their mycel posses protein components in the wall.
This leads to a clear contrast and easy detection using redprot® staining.
The cytoplasma in growing compartments and vivid spores are also marked by blue colour in redprot® staining.
Mycelia: Cladosporium aeromedi
Penicillium aeromedi
Spores: Epicoccum aeromedi
Neisseria aeromedi
Alternaria aeromedi

These feature of individual staining of MO can be used for their simplified identification.
The species related patter of redprot® staining is the basis of the calculations performed by the software PCS in our Analysis System. >> Micscope Image Analysis System

Application: Identification of biological contamination in

  • Aerobiology
  • Medicine
  • Food industry
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